Alderson Fission-Product and Thyroid Phantom
The Lawrence Livermore Realistic Phantom was developed under the direction of the U.S Department of Energy, primarily as a reference standard for the in-vivo counting of emissions from low-energy transuranic nuclides.
The lungs, liver and lymph nodes may be radioactive or inert and are accommodated in a male thorax which is generally similar to average adult males.
The Livermore phantom contains a synthetic bone skeleton molded within a soft-tissue-equivalent material. The organs are located in an internal cavity with a separate torso cover that closes the phantom. Molded into this cover is an anterior section of ribs and the sternum.
Soft-tissue-equivalent blocks are used to position the organs and fill significant air spaces, providing continuity of the soft tissues throughout the phantom. The phantom is shipped assembled with inert organs. Any or all of these organs can be replaced with radioactive organs, which are shipped in separate packages.
A Worldwide Reference Standard for In-Vivo Counting
All organs are made of soft-tissue equivalent materials. Lungs are available with nuclide uniformly dispersed throughout the lung molding material. Optional organs are inert and have holes in a 2 x 2 cm grid which can either be filled with inert plugs or with active capsules to establish any desired distribution within the lungs.
The liver has the same loading flexibility with other options are available. Designed for use with solutions having relatively short half-lives. This liver is a hollow shell with a fill/drain port.
If the liver is not required, it may be replaced with the abdominal contents which are available with a hole matrix or active.
Lymph nodes are available as hollow shells or as active packets and are positioned in the modeled recesses of a lymph node block.
- 2x 8mm dia x 17mm L
- 1x 13mm dia x 25mm L
Chest Overlay Plates
Transuranic emissions from individuals with varying amounts of muscle and/or adipose tissue may be so attenuated as to be undetectable. Chest overlay plates were developed to ensure the validity of in-vivo counting of such individuals.
There are three sets of plates, each in four graded thicknesses. Plates of each material and/or thickness are available separately.
- 87% adipose and 13% muscle
- 50% adipose and 50% muscle
- 100% muscle
Over each chest overlay plate and the torso cover are three sets of concentric circles which are drawn in permanent black ink. They range in 1 inch increments, from 1 inch to 5 inches in diameter with a 5.5 inch diameter outer circle. One set of circles is placed over each lung region, with the outer circle tangent to the inferior aspect of the clavicle and protruding over the sternum. The third set is placed over the liver. A 2 cm x 2 cm grid is projected in red ink over most of the chest surface with the same technique that is used for the circles. All targets are consistent among all phantoms.